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Citrus ID







Cultivar or taxon


Citrus x georgiana Mabb. [=Citrus x insitorum Mabb. X Citrus japonica Thunb.] (sensu Mabberley 2004); (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) X Fortunella sp. (sensu Swingle and Reece 1967; sensu Tanaka sec. Cottin 2002)



Swingle and Reece (1967) noted that: "These were the first trigeneric hybrids to be produced artificially from definitely known parents. Swingle succeeded in making this cross in 1909 by using pollen from Willits and Rusk citranges (Poncirus trifoliata X Citrus sinensis) on properly safeguarded flowers of the oval kumquat (Fortunella margarita) and the round kumquat (F. japonica ). Several of these citrangequats were described and illustrated by Swingle and Robinson (1923, pp. 230-33, pls. 1, 2, 3). The Thomasville, Sinton, and Telfair citrangequats, described and figured by Hume (1926, pp. 40-42, fig. 45), are the best known of these hybrids."



Crown compact or dense, not weeping. First-year twig surface glabrous or pubescent; second- or third-year twig surface striate; thorns absent or not persistent or straight, prickles absent or not persistent. Petiole glabrous or pubescent, length short or medium, wings absent, narrow or wide, adjoining the blade, tucking beneath blade or absent. Leaflets one, margin entire (by misinterpretation), crenate/crenulate or bluntly toothed, shade leaflet blades weakly conduplicate, sun leaflet blades weakly or strongly conduplicate. Scent of crushed leaflets spicy or peppery. Fruit as broad as long or longer than broad; rind yellow (7-10), yellow-orange (11), orange (12), or red-orange (13); rind texture slightly rough (4-5) or medium rough (6-7); firmness leathery; navel absent; flesh orange or yellow; taste sour.

Hodgson (1967) provided the following additional notes on the cultivar: "Combining the cold-hardiness of the kumquat and trifoliate orange, the citrangequats appear to be more cold-resistant than the citranges or the Calamondin and kumquat, for they are said to succeed in regions too cold for these fruits (Ziegler and Wolfe, 1961, p. 63).

Swingle and Reece (1967) additionally noted that: "Citrangequats vary greatly in size, color, flavor, etc. The Thomasville citrangequat has obovoid fruits borne on long pedicels, 1.5 to 3 cm long and 2 to 2.5 mm in diameter at the base, but swollen and pulvinoid at the top, 8 to 10 mm, and permanently curving as the fruit matures until it hangs down, making an angle of 45° to 90° with the base of the pedicel. This character is unknown in any of the three parent species and shows how taxonomically new characters can arise in complex hybrids."



Swingle and Reece (1967) additionally noted that: "Three varieties are described by Webber (1943, pp. 665-66), all of which produce fruits with marked resemblances to the kumquat and two of which are characterized by a high percentage of trifoliolate leaves.""



Cottin, R. 2002. Citrus of the World: A citrus directory. Version 2.0. France: SRA INRA-CIRAD.

Hume, H.H. 1926. The cultivation of citrus fruits. The Macmillan Co., New York. 561 pp.

Mabberley, D.J. 2004. Citrus (Rutaceae): A review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications. Blumea 49: 481–498.

Swingle, W.T. and T.R. Robinson. 1923. Two important new types of citrous hybrids for the home garden, citrangequats and limequats. Journal of Agricultural Research. 23: 229–238.

Swingle, W.T. and P.C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. In: Reuther, W., H.J. Webber, and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry. Ed. 2. Vol. I. University of California, Riverside.

Webber, H.J. and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). 1943. The Citrus industry. Vol. I. History, botany, and breeding. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1028 pp.

Webber, H.J. 1943. Cultivated varieties of citrus. In: Webber, H.J. and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry. I: 475-668. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Ziegler, L.W. and H.S. Wolfe. 1961. Citrus growing in Florida. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 248 pp.



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Citrus ID Edition 2
October, 2011