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Citrus ID






Glycosmis harmandiana Pierre (sec. Swingle and Reece 1967)

Cultivar or taxon


Clausena harmandiana (Pierre) Guillaumin (sec. Swingle and Reece 1967, Bayer et al. 2009; sensu Tanaka sec. Cottin 2002)



Crown compact or dense, not weeping. First-year twig surface pubescent; second- or third-year twig surface mottled; thorns absent or not persistent; prickles absent or not persistent. Petiole pubescent, length short; wings absent. Leaflets five to seven, margins entire or bluntly toothed, rachis wings absent, shade leaflet blades weakly conduplicate, sun leaflet blades weakly conduplicate. Scent of crushed leaflets somewhat to strongly malodorous. Fruit as broad as long or longer than broad; rind red or pink; rind texture smooth (1-3) or slightly rough (4-5); firmness membranous; navel absent; flesh red/purplish-tinged or yellow.

Swingle and Reece (1967) provided the following additional notes on the species:

"The original description by Pierre reads, translated, as follows: "Branches rounded, pubescent. Leaves imparipinnate, with 6-9 opposite or alternate leaflets, which are subdeltoid, ovate-acuminate, obtuse at both ends, 5-14 cm long, 5-8 cm wide, submembranous, coriaceous, with 7-8 pairs of small lateral veins. Inflorescences terminal, pubescent, 10-20 cm long, much branched with rather large (5-6 mm diam.), sessile flowers. Sepals 1 mm long, very coriaceous, pubescent on the outside and ciliate. Petals 3.5-4 mm long, very concave, obovate, veinless, red spotted. Stamens 7-10, 2.5 mm long, with the filaments flattened below and subulate above, longer than the anther, which is oval and without an apical gland. Disk cupuliform. Ovary 2.5 mm long, with 5 locules, each carrying on the outside 2 large glands. Ovules 2 in each locule."

The description of the disk by Pierre as cupulate is difficult to credit. A photograph of the flowering type specimen (Harman, No. 3875) in the Paris herbarium, placed at Swingle's disposal by Tanaka, led him to think that Pierre mistook a ring of small bracts at the base of the very short pedicel (only about 1 mm long) for the calyx and the calyx itself for the disk! The length of the flower from the base of the calyx to the stigma measures about 3 mm, the calyx flattened-rotate, about 2 to 2.5 mm wide, tapering rapidly into a very short pedicel about 1 mm long (including the bluntly conical base of the calyx); at the base of the pedicel are several small bracts and sometimes one or two small flower buds which may develop later, or more often abort and fall off. These bracts and buds are borne on a slender terminal branchlet of the inflorescence 3.5 to 8 mm long. The ovary is subglobose or broadly oval, about 1.2 to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide; the style is cylindrical, 0.4 to 0.5 mm long and 0.2 to 0.3 mm wide, not contracted at the base where it joins the ovary tip. The gynophore is shorter than in most species of Clausena, but seems to be otherwise normal."



Bayer, R.J., D.J. Mabberley, C. Morton, C.H. Miller, I.K. Sharma, B.E. Pfeil, S. Rich, R. Hitchcock, and S. Sykes. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 96: 668–685.

Cottin, R. 2002. Citrus of the World: A citrus directory. Version 2.0. France: SRA INRA-CIRAD.

Swingle, W.T. and P.C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. In: Reuther, W., H.J. Webber, and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry. Ed. 2. Vol. I. University of California, Riverside.

Tanaka, T. 1937. Further revision of Rutaceae-Aurantioideae of India and Ceylon. (Revisio aurantiacearum VIII.) Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 16: 227–240.



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Citrus ID Edition 2
October, 2011