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Citrus ID


Hong Kong




Dwarf, Hime, Shan Jie, Shan Ju Ye (sec. Cottin 2002)

Cultivar or taxon


Citrus japonica Thunb. (sensu Mabberley 2004, Zhang and Mabberley 2008); Fortunella hindsii (Champ.) Swingle (sensu Swingle and Reece 1967; sensu Tanaka sec. Cottin 2002)



Hodgson (1967) noted that:

"The Hong Kong kumquat is apparently of ancient origin, for it is rather widely distributed in the wild and is undoubtedly the chin chu (golden bean) or shan chin kan (mountain golden mandarin) described by Han Yen-chih in 1178 A.D. and referred to by an earlier writer whom he quotes.

In modern times, however, the name golden bean kumquat has been restricted to a cultivated diploid form, the chin tou of China or Kinzu kinkan of Japan, which Swingle considers to have originated from the wild species. According to Swingle [and Reece] ([1967]), it differs from the parent species principally in having larger, thinner, and narrower leaves, shorter and more slender spines, and somewhat larger fruits. The flowers are also smaller."



Crown compact or dense, not weeping. First-year twig surface glabrous; second- or third-year twig surface striate; thorns straight; prickles absent or not persistent. Petiole glabrous, length short; wings narrow, adjoining the blade. Leaflets one, margin entire or bluntly toothed, shade leaflet blades weakly conduplicate sun leaflet blades weakly conduplicate. Leaflets not scented when crushed. Fruit as broad as long or longer than broad; rind yellow-orange (11), orange (12), or red-orange (13); rind texture slightly rough (4-5); firmness leathery; navel absent; flesh orange; taste acidic-sweet.


Hodgson (1967) provided the following additional notes on the cultivar: "This is the Mame or Hime kinkan of Japan. According to Swingle [and Reece] ([1967]), this species grows wild in Hongkong and in the Chekiang and Kwangtung provinces of China. The most distinctive features include the small size and spiny nature of the plant and the very small, brilliantly colored, subglobose, virtually inedible fruits that contain three or four segments and relatively large, plump seeds. Since the pollen-mother cells contain double the normal number of chromosomes, Swingle considers it to have originated as an autotetraploid."



Cottin, R. 2002. Citrus of the World: A citrus directory. Version 2.0. France: SRA INRA-CIRAD.

Hodgson, R.W. 1967. Horticultural varieties of Citrus. In: Reuther, W., H.J. Webber, and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry, rev. University of California Press.

Mabberley, D.J. 2004. Citrus (Rutaceae): A review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications. Blumea 49: 481–498.

Swingle, W.T. and P.C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. In: Reuther, W., H.J. Webber, and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry. Ed. 2. Vol. I. University of California, Riverside.

Zhang, D. and D.J. Mabberley. 2008. Citrus. In: Flora of China Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of China, Vol. 11. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.



Search for this cultivar in NCBI Entrez

Additional information on this cultivar at University of California: Riverside Citrus Variety Collection


Citrus ID Edition 2
October, 2011