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Citrus ID







Cultivar or taxon


Citrus reticulata Blanco (sensu Swingle and Reece 1967, Mabberley 1997; sensu Tanaka sec. Cottin 2002); Citrus nobilis Lour. x Citrus deliciosa Ten. (sec. NPGS/GRIN 2010)



Hodgson (1967) noted that: "This high-quality variety is a sister to Wilking, both resulting from a King-Willowleaf (Mediterranean) mandarin cross made in 1915 by H. B. Frost (1935) of the University of California Citrus Research Center, Riverside, California, and named and released in 1935. Kinnow has been distributed widely and is currently grown commercially to some extent in California, Arizona, West Pakistan, and India (Punjab). The total plantings in California (mainly the Coachella Valley) and Arizona in 1964 were estimated at 900 acres."



Crown compact or dense, not weeping. First-year twig surface glabrous; thorns absent or not persistent.; prickles absent or not persistent. Petiole glabrous, length short; wings absent, if present, narrow, adjoining the blade. Leaflets one, margin bluntly toothed, shade leaflet blades weakly conduplicate, sun leaflet blades weakly or strongly conduplicate. Scent of crushed leaflets mandarin-like. Fruit broader than long; rind yellow-orange (11), orange (12), or red-orange (13); rind texture smooth (1-3) or slightly rough (4-5); firmness leathery; navel absent; flesh orange; taste acidic-sweet.

Hodgson (1967) provided the following additional notes on the cultivar:

"Fruit medium in size, moderately to slightly oblate; both base and apex flattened or slightly depressed. Rind thin, rather adherent for a mandarin but peelable, tough and leathery; surface very smooth and glossy, sometimes faintly pitted; color yellowish-orange at maturity. Segments 9 to 10, firm, separating fairly easily; axis solid to semi-hollow. Flesh color deep yellowish-orange; very juicy; flavor rich, aromatic, and distinctive. Seeds numerous, polyembryonic, and cotyledons pale greenish-yellow. Midseason in maturity (about like Dancy). Fruit holds well on tree with little puffing.

Tree vigorous and large, tall and columnar, with numerous long, slender, ascending, and virtually thornless branchlets; dense foliage consists of medium-large, broadly lanceolate leaves. Rather strong tendency to alternate bearing with large crop of smaller fruits followed by very small crop of larger fruits. Cold-resistant."



Cottin, R. 2002. Citrus of the World: A citrus directory. Version 2.0. France: SRA INRA-CIRAD.

Frost, H.B. 1935. Four new citrus varieties—the Kara, Kinnow and Wilking mandarins and the Trovita orange. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 597:14 pp.

Mabberley, D.J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7: 167–172.

Swingle, W.T. and P.C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. In: Reuther, W., H.J. Webber, and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry. Ed. 2. Vol. I. University of California, Riverside.



Search for this cultivar in NCBI Entrez

Additional information on this cultivar at University of California: Riverside Citrus Variety Collection


Citrus ID Edition 2
October, 2011