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Citrus L. subg. Papeda (sec. Bayer et al. 2009; Swingle and Reece 1967)



Crown compact or dense, not weeping. First-year twig surface glabrous; second- or third-year twig surface striate; thorns absent or not persistent or straight; prickles absent or not persistent. Petiole glabrous, length short, medium or very long; wings absent, if present, narrow, medium or wide, adjoining the blade or tucking beneath blade. Leaflets one, margin entire, crenate/crenulate, bluntly toothed or serrate/serrulate, shade leaflet blades flat or weakly conduplicate, sun leaflet blades weakly or strongly conduplicate. Scent of crushed leaflets sweetly orange-like, spicy or peppery, freshly lemon-like, or somewhat to strongly malodorous. Fruit broader than long, as broad as long, or longer than broad; rind dark green (3), medium green (4), light green with some break to yellow (5), green-yellow (6), yellow (7-10), yellow-orange (11), orange (12), or red-orange (13); rind texture smooth (1-3), slightly rough (4-5), medium rough (6-7), or rough; firmness leathery; navel absent; flesh green/greenish; orange or yellow; taste acidic-sweet or sour.

Papedas remain a somewhat variable group, but most treated here exhibit petiole wings that are medium wide to wide (e.g., Alemow, Combava). Those with consistently broad petiole wings have been referred to C. hystrix by Bayer et al. (2009). Nestour is an exception and may additionally exhibit no petiole wings or narrow ones. This cultivar has been referred to Citrus x aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle.

Swingle and Reece (1967) provided the following additional notes on the group:

"Pulp-vesicles with very numerous droplets of acrid oil; petioles always large and broadly winged; flowers small, usually less than 2 cm diam.; stamens free, or, if cohering in bundles, then flowers larger (1.5-3 cm diam.) and petioles very long, 1 3/4-3 times longer than broad.

This subgenus comprises a number of truly wild species of Citrus, many of them still to be found growing in primeval forests of the Monsoon region. There are two sections in the subgenus Papeda, the section Papeda, comprising the typical species, and the section Papedocitrus, which is intermediate in character between the subgenus Citrus and the section Papeda, having flowers much like those of the subgenus Citrus and leaves like those of the section Papeda. The fruits are almost never eaten, but the acrid juice of the fruits of the species belonging to the section Papeda is widely used by primitive peoples, especially Malays, Melanesians, and Polynesians, as a hair wash."

"...the species of Citrus belonging to the subgenus Papeda have been shown by Tillson (1938, pp. 21, 30; also Tillson and Bamford, 1938, pp. 788, 790) to possess a decidedly simpler type of vascular anatomy of the flowers than do the species of the subgenus Citrus. In this important character the subgenus Papeda agrees with the other five genera (other than Citrus) included in the True Citrus Fruit Tree group. This fact will doubtless prove important in studying the course of evolution of the commonly cultivated species of Citrus, all of which belong to the subgenus Citrus . This makes it very desirable to learn much more than we now know regarding the species of papedas in their relationship to the subgenus Citrus, on the one hand, and to the genera Clymenia, Microcitrus, Eremocitrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella , on the other. Tillson's discovery of a primitive character in the papedas serves to emphasize how very different they are from the true oranges of the subgenus Citrus.

The species which belong to the section Papeda have small flowers, 1.2 to 1.7 (rarely 2) cm in diameter, with free stamens not cohering in groups. The pulp-vesicles of all the species contain numerous globules of very acrid oil and are sometimes attached to the radial locule walls for one-half to three-fourths the distance from the dorsal wall to the center of the fruit."



Bayer, R.J., D.J. Mabberley, C. Morton, C.H. Miller, I.K. Sharma, B.E. Pfeil, S. Rich, R. Hitchcock, and S. Sykes. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 96: 668–685.

Swingle, W.T. and P.C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. In: Reuther, W., H.J. Webber, and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry. Ed. 2. Vol. I. University of California, Riverside.

Tillson, A.H. 1938. The floral anatomy of the Aurantioideae. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. 40 pp.

Tillson, A.H. and R. Bamford. 1938. The floral anatomy of the Aurantioideae. American Journal of Botany 25: 780–793.



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Citrus ID Edition 2
October, 2011