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Citrus ID

 

Rough

 

Synonyms

 

Citronelle, Cu Pi Ning Meng, de Floride, Estes, Florida Rough, Florida, French, Geronggang, Gomiri, Jamberi Khati, Jamberi, Jatti Khati, Jullundri Khatti, Jullundri, Kata-jamir, Lewis, Limoniera, Mazae, Mazoe, Menu-tenga, Naite, Rugoso, Schaub, Seti, Sinduri Minu-tenga, Soh-jhahlia, Soh-jhalia, Soh-myndong, South African, Stow Red, Stowe Red, UCLA, Vangasay (fide Cottin 2002); Mazoe Lemon (sec. Hodgson 1967)

Cultivar or taxon

 

Citrus x limon (L.) Osbeck, pro sp. X ? (sensu Federici et al. 2000); Citrus x jambhiri Lush, pro sp. (sensu Mabberley 1997); Citrus x taitensis Risso (sensu Mabberley 2004, Bayer et al. 2009); Citrus jambhiri Lush. (sensu Hodgson 1967; sensu Tanaka sec. Cottin 2002)

Origin

 

Hodgson (1967) noted that:

"This species exhibits a remarkable range of variation in fruit characters, and in India, where it is native, four relatively distinct types are recognized, one of which is similar to the form obtained from Italy known as C. volckameriana (for description see Chapot 1965a). There is also a sweet-fleshed form."

Presumably native to northeastern India, where it still grows wild, the rough lemon seems to have been taken to southeast Africa by the Portuguese toward the end of the fifteenth or early sixteenth century and thence to Europe. It doubtless reached the New World not long thereafter."

Description

 

Crown compact or dense, not weeping. First-year twig surface glabrous; second- or third-year twig surface striate; thorns absent or not persistent or straight; prickles absent or not persistent. Petiole glabrous, length short; wings absent. Leaflets one, margin crenate/crenulate or bluntly toothed, shade leaflet blades flat or weakly conduplicate, sun leaflet blades weakly conduplicate. Scent of crushed leaflets freshly lemon-like. Fruit broader than long, as broad as long, or longer than broad; rind green-yellow (6), yellow (7-10), yellow-orange (11), or orange (12); rind texture slightly rough (4-5), medium rough (6-7), or rough (8); firmness leathery; navel absent; flesh orange or yellow; taste sour.

Hodgson (1967) provided the following additional notes on the cultivar:

"Fruit medium in size, of highly variable form but usually oblate to elliptic-oblong; commonly with irregularly furrowed or lobed basal collar or neck; usually with broad apical nipple surrounded by a deep irregular areolar furrow. Rind medium-thick; surface typically deeply pitted, and rough or bumpy, sometimes ribbed; easily separable; color lemon-yellow to brownish-orange. Segments about 10; axis large and hollow. Flesh color light yellow to pale orange; medium juicy; flavor moderately acid. Seeds numerous, small, highly polyembryonic, and cotyledons faintly green. Some crop throughout the year but mainly in winter.

Tree vigorous and large, upright-spreading, with numerous small thorns; leaves medium-small, blunt-pointed, and light green. Flowers small and mandarin-like, purple-tinged, and produced more or less throughout year, but mainly in spring and late summer. New shoot growth faintly purple-tinted. Sensitivity to cold about like that of true lemons.

Notes

 

Hodgson (1967) additionally noted that:

"Although used to some extent as a lemon substitute, for which it is not very suitable, the rough lemon is highly important as a rootstock in many parts of the world—notably India, South Africa, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, and Florida. In the last two mentioned countries, selections have recently been named—Estes and Milam—which exhibit resistance to the burrowing nematode."

References

 

Bayer, R.J., D.J. Mabberley, C. Morton, C.H. Miller, I.K. Sharma, B.E. Pfeil, S. Rich, R. Hitchcock, and S. Sykes. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 96: 668–685.

Chapot, H. 1965a. Le Citrus volkameriana Pasquale. Al Awamia [Rabat] 14: 29–45.

Coit, J.E. and R.W. Hodgson. 1919. An investigation of the abnormal shedding of young fruits of the Washington navel orange. University of California Publications in Agricultural Science 3: 283–268.

Cottin, R. 2002. Citrus of the World: A citrus directory. Version 2.0. France: SRA INRA-CIRAD.

Hodgson, R.W. 1967. Horticultural varieties of Citrus. In: Reuther, W., H.J. Webber, and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry, rev. University of California Press. http://lib.ucr.edu/agnic/webber/Vol1/Chapter4.html.

Mabberley, D.J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7: 167–172.

Mabberley, D.J. 2004. Citrus (Rutaceae): A review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications. Blumea 49: 481–498.

Resources

 

Search for this cultivar in NCBI Entrez, NCBI Nucleotide, or NCBI Expressed Sequence Tags

Additional information on this cultivar at University of California: Riverside Citrus Variety Collection (Jullunder Khatti)

 

Citrus ID Edition 2
October, 2011
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