Common name

Giant pine coccids, giant pine scales, or marchalinids

Field characters

Body large, up to 11 mm; usually yellow; legs large, dark; producing ventral, white ovisac; immature female forms similar in appearance to adult female; males known in 1 species, with winged and wingless forms; winged form with central tuft of filaments.

Validation characters

Anal tube sclerotized but without sclerotized ring or pores; 4 or 5 pores on each surface of trochanter oriented at 45 degree angle from proximal margin of trochanter; without cicatrices; 7 abdominal spiracles, without pores in atrium; antennae usually 9- segmented.

Notes

Placement of Marchalina is problematic. Morrison (1928) and Koteja (1974) considered it to be part of the Coelostomidiidae; but the work of Gullan and Sjaarda (2001) placed it basally in the Monophlebidae. For the purposes of this key, we consider Marchalinidae to be a family group distinct from other members of the margarodoids. Marchalinidae was first used as a family by Koteja (1996a).

Distribution

Marchalinids occur in two zoogeographical regions. The Nearctic region and Palaearctic region. They are most speciose in the Palaearctic region.

Hosts

Marchalinids are found on conifers in the genera Pinus, Abies, and Picea.

Life history

Marchalinids apparently have 4 instars in the female and 5 in the male. Marchalina caucasica Hadzibeyli has a generation every 2 years and lives at high altitudes in the conifer forests.

Important references

Ferris 1925; Gullan and Sjaarda 2001; Hodgson and Foldi 2006; Hovasse 1930; Hadzibejli 1969; Koteja 1996a; Marotta and Priore 1994; Morrison 1928.

Diversity

Click here for a check list of all marchalinid genera and species.