Common name

Phenacoleachiids

Field characters

Adult female is red or reddish brown and is covered with a white mealy secretion, a cottony wax, and some long curling coarse yellow threads. There are short lateral filaments on the posterior abdominal segments. First instars are yellowish red covered with the same white mealy wax. Adult males are red or reddish yellow, large, covered with white mealy wax, and have 2 lateral filaments.

Validation characters

Claw with short and long digitule; labium 4-segmented; lateral margins of abdomen with evaginated tubular structures; ostioles present; trilocular pores present; cicatrices present; coxa divided longitudinally; antennae 9- or 11- segmented; abdominal spiracles weakly defined, but apparently present.

Notes

The placement of Phenacoleachia has been an enigma since its description in 1891. In general appearance it resembles a mealybug but it is becoming increasingly evident that it is more closely related to the primitive groups of scale insects such as the ortheziids and margarodoid than to the higher groups such as pseudococcids. Phenacoleachiidae Cockerell was first treated as a family by Obenberger (1957).

Distribution

Phenacoleachia is known only from the south island of New Zealand and from the New Zealand off shore islands.

Hosts

Phenacoleachia zealandica (Maskell) is reported primarily from Nothofagus species in the Fagaceae and P. australis Beardsley is from a Pleurophyllum species, a composite.

Life history

Little is known about the life history of phenacoleachiids.

Important references

Beardsley 1964b; Gullan and Cook 2002; Hodgson and Foldi 2006; Koteja 2000; Maskell 1891; Morrison and Morrison 1922; Theron 1962.

Diversity

Click here for a check list of all phenacoleachiid genera and species.