Common name

Florida wax scale

Field characters

Body oval or rectangular; convex in lateral view in old females, nearly flat in young females; body reddish brown; with a thick wax covering; eggs laid in chamber under body of adult; ovisac absent. The following description is from Gimpel et al. (1974). Test: Wet wax rectangular to oval in dorsal view, hemispherical laterally, without horn, grayish to pinkish white, with large marginal flange in older females, absent or small in young females, not hiding lateral filaments, without plates and nuclei. Dry wax with filaments as follows: cephalic filament appearing trifurcate, with acute apices; anterolateral and mediolateral filaments simple; posterolateral filaments bifurcate; caudal filaments with weakly divided, bifurcate apices; dorsal dry wax of first and second instars forming small central cap, not surrounded by nucleus; dorsal dry wax not tilted. Stigmatic wax bands present near both spiracles, anterior band directed dorsally, filamentous wax confined to stigmatic areas. On stems and leaves.

Validation characters

Stigmatic setae not contiguous between anterior and posterior furrow, with several thin marginal setae inbetween; about 28 stigmatic setae laterad of each stigmatic furrow, arranged in 3 irregular rows; without dorsomedial clear area; tubular ducts with inner filament expanded, present submarginally from eye to anterior of anal cleft. Other characters: Dorsal setae cylindrical, apex truncate; stigmatic setae lanceolate, with pointed or slightly rounded apices; marginal setae simple; 1 pair of prevulvar setae (often obscured by anal plates); multilocular pores on all abdominal segments, sometimes present near middle and hind pairs of legs; multilocular pores anterior of anterior spiracle, when present, predominantly with 5 loculi, about same size as pores laterad of anterior spiracle; tibio-tarsal sclerosis absent; claw without denticle; claw digitules equal; antennae usually 6-segmented, rarely 7; area around anal region sclerotized, forming protuberance; anal plates rounded, without distinct angles; each anal plate with 1 subapical seta, 3 or 4 apical setae, and 1 subdiscal seta; anal fold with 6 fringe setae; preopercular pores inconspicuous, restricted to area anterior of anal plates; without submarginal tubercles.


Ceroplastes floridensis is similar to C. japonicus by having a submarginal row of tubular ducts, no dorsomedial clear area, and tubular ducts with the inner filament expanded. Ceroplastes floridensis differs by having the anterior and posterior clusters of stigmatic setae separated by thin marginal setae (these are contiguous in C. japonicus) and fewer stigmatic setae (about 56 on each side of body; with about 130 on each side of body on C. japonicus).

U.S. quarantine notes

This species was intercepted 108 times on a variety of hosts at U. S. ports-of-entry between 1995 and 2012, with specimens originating from The Bahamas, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Jordon, Lebanon, Mexico, The Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, The U.S. Virgin Islands, and Vietnam. We also have examined specimens taken in quarantine from Antigua (Nymphaea); Aruba (unknown host); Bahamas (Tabebuia); Bangladesh (unknown host); Belgium (Myrtus); Bermuda (Citrus, Clerodendron, Laurus, Nerium); Brazil (Laurus); Colombia (Ixora); Costa Rica (Dieffenbachia); Cuba (Diospyros, Mangifera); Dominican Republic (Citrus, Mangifera); Ecuador (Citrus); El Salvador (Schefflera); Guatemala (Aralia, fern); Greece (Citrus, Laurus), Haiti (Citrus); Honduras (Yucca); India (Eugenia); Israel (Banksia, Citrus, Euonymus, Monstera, Myrtus); Italy (Citrus, Hedera, Laurus); Jamaica (unknown host); Lebanon (Citrus); Mexico (Chamaedorea, Gardenia, Mangifera, Schefflera, Zingiber); Montserrat (Mangifera, Myrtus); The Netherlands (Euonymus); Panama (Ficus, Terminalia); The Philippines (Chrysophyllum); Puerto Rico (Citrus, Gardenia, Mangifera, Rhizophora); South Africa (Citrus); St. Croix (Citrus); Thailand (Citrus); Trinidad (Anthurium, Ixora, Psidium); Tunisia (Laurus). ScaleNet includes hosts on over 60 plant families from all zoogeographic regions. One species of Ceroplastes other than C. ceriferus (Fabricius), C. cirripediformis Comstock, C. floridensis, C. japonicus Green, C. rubens Maskell, C. rusci (Linneaus), C. sinensis Del Guercio and C. stellifer (Westwood) has been intercepted at a U. S. port-of-entry, C. cistudiformis Cockerell (Mexico, on Punica).

Important references

GimpelMiDa1974; HamonWi1984; WilliaWa1990.

Scalenet catalog and citation list

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