Family

Coccidae

Catalog

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Common name

Pyriform scale

Field characters

Body broadly oval or pyriform, often asymmetrical; flat in cross section; body yellowish brown in young females, dark brown in older females, often with sclerotized areas around body margin; anal plates located in middle of dorsum appearing as a medial ridge; without an obvious wax covering; ovisac represented by narrow white secretion around body margin. Occurring on undersides of leaves. Males have been reported (Moznet1922a) in Florida, but this may be an error since it is reported to be parthenogenetic elsewhere (BlumbeBl1991). Eggs laid beneath body of the female, apparently yellow when first laid.

Validation characters

Marginal setae fringed; dorsal setae conspicuously capitate; usually with 10 or more submarginal tubercles; anal plate located between hind coxae, anterolateral margin conspicuously longer than posterolateral margin; dorsal surface of older adult females with sclerotized pattern around body margin; tubular ducts abundant, least numerous in medial areas of head and abdomen. Other characters: Claw without denticle; claw digitules equal; 1 pair of prevulvar setae (often obscured by anal plates); stigmatic setae differentiated from other marginal setae, middle seta longer than lateral setae; dorsal setae large, with capitate apex; each anal plate with 3 or 4 apical setae, without a subdiscal seta; with 2 inconspicuous subapical setae on each plate; anal fold with 4 fringe setae; with tibio-tarsal sclerosis; antennae 7- or 8-segmented; multilocular pores normally with 7 loculi; multiloculars usually scattered in medial areas of abdomen; preopercular pores inconspicuous, restricted to area anterior of anal plates.

Comparison

Protopulinaria pyriformis is similar to P. longivalvata by having the anal plates in the center of the body and the anterolateral margin of the anal plates is conspicuously longer than the posterolateral margin. Protopulvinaria pyriformis differs by having larger and conspicuously fringed marginal setae (small and simple or weakly fringed in P. longivalvata), longer and more conspicuous dorsal setae (small and inconspicuous in P. longivalvata), and usually 10 or more submarginal tubercles (usually 8 or fewer in P. longivalvata).

U.S. quarantine notes

This species was intercepted 103 times at U. S. ports-of-entry between 1995 and 2012, with specimens originating from Argentina, Azores, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Hawaii, India, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Mexico, Micronesia, Morocco, Nigeria, The Netherlands, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Spain, St. Maarten, Tortola, Tunisia, and The United Kingdom of Great Britain and N. Ireland. We also have examined specimens taken in quarantine from Argentina (Gardenia, Laurus), Bahamas (Bauhinia, Gardenia), Barbados (Persea), Belize (Furcraea), Bermuda (Eugenia, Hedera, Lonicera), Brazil (Laurus), Colombia (Citrus, Gardenia), Costa Rica (Nerium, Schefflera), Cuba (Cinnamomum, Coffea, Gardenia), Dominica (Myrtus), Dominican Republic (Anacardium, Gardenia, Laurus, Persea), Ecuador (Persea), Germany (Ricinus), Guatemala (Gardenia), Guyana (Citrus), Haiti (Citrus, Persea), Honduras (Gardenia), Italy (Citrus), Jamaica (Cinnamomum, Coleus, Laurus, Syzygium), Martinique (Syzygium), Mexico (Chamaedorea, Gardenia, Ixora, Laurus, Schefflera), Panama (Vanilla), Peru (Laurus), Portugal (Citrus), Puerto Rico (Ixora, Psidium, Syzygium), Spain (Laurus), St. Kitts (Citrus, Dracaena), Trinidad (Camellia, Cinnamomum, Ixora, Persea), Uruguay (Laurus), Venezuela (Ixora, Gardenia, Laurus, Persea, Philadendron). ScaleNet includes hosts in 33 plant families from all zoogeographic regions except the Australasian region. One other species of Protopulvinaria other than P. longivalvata Green and P. pyriformis has been taken at U. S. ports-of-entry, P. fukayai (Kuwana) (Japan, on Fatsia).

Important references

BlumbeBl1991; Gill1988; Granar1999; HamonWi1984; Hodgso1994a; Moznet1922a; WilliaWa1990.

All references mentioned

Protopulvinaria pyriformis