Family

Monophlebidae

Catalog

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Field characters

Body brown, legs and antennae black, covered by thick layer of white to cream colored wax, divided into 16 to 20 areas, marginal areas with fringe of wax processes, shorter on head and thorax, posterior processes long. Morrison (1921) mentions wax as lemon yellow and suggests that there is no ovisac. Eggs laid either inside ovisac or under body of female. Males are reported by Leonardi (1907).

Validation characters

3 cicatrices posterior of vulva; all cicatrices round, lateral pair smaller than medial cicatrix; ovisac band thin, comprising 3 or 4 pores between hind pair of legs; setae in ovisac band with distinct separate base, uncommon; dorsal setae relatively similar in size, without conspicuously long setae in medail areas of thorax;3 pairs of abdominal spiracles; large open center pores absent; antennae 10- or 11-segmented. Other characters: Thoracic and abdominal spiracles simple, without pores in atrium; anal opening simple with sclerotized rim internally.

Comparison

Icerya pulchra is very similar to I. minor by having 3 pairs of abdominal spiracles; 3 cicatices near vulva; and lacking open center pores. Icerya pulchra differs by having short setae on the antennae of the crawler (those on I. minor are long).

U.S. quarantine notes

This species was intercepted 7 times at U. S. ports-of-entry between 1995 and 2012, with specimens originating from Malaysia and The Philippines. We also have examined specimens taken in quarantine from Japan (Codiaeum, palm); Malaysia (Durio); The Philippines (Ananas, Areca, Lansium, Musa); Thailand (Areca, Citrus). ScaleNet includes hosts in 9 plant families from the (Indonesia, Sumatra, The Philippines, and Singapore) and the (Japan) zoogeographic regions. It is commonly intercepted on Musa. No other species of Icerya have been taken in quarantine at U. S. ports-of-entry other than I. aegyptiaca (Douglas), I. pulchra, I. purchasi (Maskell), I. samaraia (Morrison) and I. seychellarum (Westwood).

Important references

Leonar1907; Morris1921; Morris1928; Rao1951a.

All references mentioned

Icerya pulchra