The region of the body that bears the anus; usually near the posterior end. Many important taxonomic characters are to be found in the anal area of scale insects. These characters usually correspond to adaptations that help excrete honeydew away from the relatively immobile, phloem-feeding adult female.
(pl. antennae) Pair of jointed appendages located on the head of an insect above the mouthparts. Each antenna usually consists of one or more articulated segments bearing sensory organs.In some scales, such as adult female diaspidids, the antenna is reduced to an unarticulated, unsegmented stub.
Minute to large pore-like structures overlying glandular cells and surrounded by a slightly sclerotized rim (Foldi 1991); they occur on the ventral and/or dorsal cuticle of females and sometimes males of many species belonging in the margarodoid families.
Circular, oval, rectangular, or hourglass shaped areas of cuticle on the ventral side of the abdomen, present in mealybugs (Pseudococcidae), rhizoecids and putoids. The circulus functions as an adhesive organ in the mature female (Williams 1978).
The stage in an insect's life history that occurs between any two molts; e.g. the first instar is the insect that hatches from the egg, the second instar is the insect that occurs between the first and second molt.
Same as anal tube.
Setae that are in a pocket in the derm, i.e., sheathed.
When present, the ambulatory structures on each side of the thoracic segments comprising the coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, tarsus, and claw. In adult female scales, legs vary from well-developed to completely absent.
(pl. loculi) Section(s) of various kinds of wax pores. For example, a trilocular pore has 3 sections or loculi.
A pair of slit-like organs located between the head and prothorax and on the sixth abdominal segment (Williams 1985) of nymphs and adult females of the Phenacoleachiidae, Putoidae, most Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae. They discharge a fluid apparently derived from the hemolymph that solidifies on contact with air (Ferris 1950). Ostiolar secretions appear to have dual functions in defense and releasing alarm pheromones (Williams 1978).
A waxy secretion produced by the adult female that encloses the eggs.
Narrow area connecting the spiracular opening with the body margin that appears as a tubular depression in the derm and generally contains a concentration of wax pores. See also spiracle.
Tarsus:Leg segment between the tibia and the claw. The fifth segment of the leg when all segments are present. In some families, such as Micrococcidae, the tibia and tarsus are fused.
Covering of scale insect body.
Sclerotized areas surrounding the opening of the respiratory system or tracheae. Normally located behind the first two pairs of legs or near the junction of the pro- and mesothoracic segments and between the meso- and metathoraic segments.
Clear areas on the surface of any or all of the coxa, trochanter, femur, or tibia. Usually appearing as small clear dots in the more heavily sclerotized derm of the leg. Occurring in pseudococcids, dactylopiids and eriococcids.
Trilocular pores:Pores with 3 loculi. Common on mealybugs where they have a swirled appearance when focusing up and down with a compound microscope.