Field characters

Body oval; relatively flat in cross section; body most likely light green in new females, dark brown in older females; without obvious wax covering; ovisac produced beneath and behind female, white. Eggs laid inside ovisac.

Validation characters

Marginal setae long, thin, with slightly rounded, capitate, apex; derm with lightly sclerotized reticulate pattern; with 8-13 submarginal tubercles. Other characters: Each anal plate with 4 apical setae and without subdiscal seta; with 3 subapical setae on each plate; anal fold with 4 fringe setae; ventral tubular ducts scattered over venter; multilocular pores normally with 7 or 8 loculi; multiloculars present in vulvar area forward to segment 2, especially submarginally; dorsal tubular ducts present; tibio-tarsus articulated, with sclerosis; claw without denticle; claw digitules equal; 3 pairs of prevulvar setae (posterior pair often obscured by anal plates); stigmatic setae differentiated from other marginal setae, middle seta longer than lateral setae; anal plates with posterior margin about equal in length to anterior margin; antennae 8-segmented; preopercular pores inconspicuous, restricted to area anterior of anal plates.


Pulvinaria ixorae is unique by having long marginal setae with slightly capitate apices and by having a weak reticulate pattern on the dorsum.

U.S. quarantine notes

This species was intercepted 8 times at U. S. ports-of-entry between 1995 and 2012, with specimens originating from India, on Murraya.We also have examined specimens taken in quarantine from India (Murraya, Rhododendron, and "pepper tree"). ScaleNet includes hosts in the Rubiaceae (Ixora) and distribution records include India and Sri Lanka. A few other species of Pulvinaria have been taken in quarantine in addition to P. floccifera (Westwood), P. hydrangeae Steinweden, P. ixorae, P. polygonata Cockerell, P. psidii Maskell and P. urbicola Cockerell including: P. aurantii Cockerell (Japan, on Citrus); P. citricola Kuwana (Ecuador, on Musa; Japan, on Diospyros); P. elongata Newstead (Colombia, on Oryza ); P. horii (Kuwana) (Japan, on Acer); P. neocellulosa Takahashi (India, on Murraya); and Pulvinaria vitis (Canada, on Tilia).

Important references


Scalenet catalog and citation list

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