Field characters

Body of adult female covered by a hard resinous cover or test that is uniquely shaped like an “X” or “bow tie” with 4 prominent lobes; test is light to dark reddish brown but may turn black when covered with sooty mold. Body is the same shape as the test; crawlers are bright red. Occurring on small branches and twigs; sometimes coalescing into encrustations that cover the surface of the twigs. Males have not been found in Florida; the species is thought to be parthenogenetic.

Validation characters

Body with 4 lobes; ventral duct groups anterior of mouthparts in 2 discrete clusters; 2 groups of ventral ducts posterior of each hind spiracle; less than 30 pseudospines on brachial plate; anal ring entire, not divided; anal fringe irregular. Other characters: One pair of spiracles conspicuously larger than other; conspicuous brachial plate with many pseudospines; dorsal spine present anterior of anal opening; anal area with associated anal fringe; legs absent; antennae poorly developed.


Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan is similar to P. lobata (Chamberlin) by having the anterior and posterior ends of the body developed into 2 large lateral lobes, and the antenna large and 2-segmented. P. pseudolobata differs from P. lobata by having the ventral duct groups anterior of the mouthparts in 2 discrete clusters (merged in P. lobata) with 23-41 ducts in both clusters (50-60 in P. lobata) and 2 ventral duct groups on each side of body posterior of each hind spiracle (3 or 4 on P. lobata). Character information was provided by Takumasa Kondo and Penny Gullan (personal communication June 20, 2006).

U.S. quarantine notes

This species was intercepted 3 times at U. S. ports-of-entry between 1995 and 2012, with specimens originating from Puerto Rico. We also have examined specimens collected in the Bahamas and Florida. ScaleNet includes hosts in 5 families, and it is commonly intercepted on Annona. ScaleNet distribution records for P. pseudolobata include The United States of America (Florida) and Puerto Rico & Vieques Island from the Neotropical and Nearctic regions, respectivelly. No other species of Paratachardina has been intercepted at a U. S. port-of-entry.

Important references

HowardPeHa2004; Pember2003; Pember2003a.

Scalenet catalog and citation list

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